The pockets of land that remained dominantly Celtic are divided linguistically into two branches — Goidelic Gaelic and Brythonic British. The Brythonic is made up of Welsh, Cornish and Breton. Of these, perhaps Welsh is the one to survive most strongly in the present day, mainly due to the efforts of the Welsh seeking to preserve their culture and identity part from the English.
The social stigma attached to the worth of Celtic languages in British society throughout the last thousand years seems responsible for the dearth of Celtic loan words in the English language, a language renowned for its borrowing of words from many other languages. Celtic languages were viewed as inferior, and words that have survived are usually words with geographical significance, and place names. Adopted words include bucket, car, crockery, noggin, gob, slogan and flannel, truant and gaol although these words entered general English usage at a later date — certainly post-Norman conquest.
Unfortunately, the various branches became geographically isolated, preventing any opportunity at standardization as an alternative to the centralized English social and political structure. For the most part, Celtic influence on the English language is mostly apparent through place names. Some names that survive are the names of rivers such as the Thames and the Yare, and important Roman towns such as London, York and Lincoln. A number of names are compounds of Celtic and Anglo-Saxon words.
Two Celtic words for "hill" bre and pen appear in a number of names.
Brill in Buckinghamshire is a combination of bre and OE hyll. Breedon on the Hill in Leicestershire is a combination of bre and dun , both Celtic words, and Brewood in Staffordshire is combined with OE wudu. Pensax in Herefordshire means "hill of the Anglo-Saxons", giving an indication of the proximity but isolation in which Celtic communities would have existed until they were gradually pushed to the corners of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons.
The use of "Combe" or "Coombe" as part of many place names comes from the Celtic word kumb , which meant "valley", and was adopted into OE. The name Cornwall is an Anglicized form of the original name for the people who inhabited the far south-west of Britain kern either being a tribal name, or a word meaning "rock", and "wall" coming from OE weahlas meaning rather inappropriately "foreigners". Parallel names are common in the south-west as well — for example St. Ives is also known by its Cornish name of Porthia. The meaning of the name Bodmin is an interesting one, as it makes a connection with the fact that Celtic loanwords generally come from place names where they have survived for centuries, being adopted by each invading group as they arrive, but that also a number of loanwords have connections with religious terms.
There is considerable evidence to suggest that a number of words were brought over from Ireland by the Christian missionaries, and that their survival was due to the strength of British Christianity that for a while exceeded that of the Roman church. The word "cross" Gaelic crois , was used alongside OE rood for several centuries before it eventually became part of the English lexicon.
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Wolfe If V2 along the above-mentioned other word orders was present in all Brythonic languages, it was probably present in their predecessor Late-Proto- British as well. In order to trace the origin of verb-second orders properly, we should therefore look beyond Brythonic languages to other branches of Celtic to see if we encounter these V2 orders even further back in time. In figure 2. Just like in earlier stages of Welsh, however, these might actually represent hanging or left-dislocated topics rather than examples of a V2 grammar: 13 a. For the purposes of the present paper, therefore, the Irish data will not be taken into consideration.
MacCana , Lindeman , Russell and Schrijver raise many objections to this point of view, however, arguing that verb-initial order is more likely to have arisen in Insular Celtic and strict V2 in British Celtic only at a later stage see also section 2.
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The amount of data we have in Gaulish is limited to various gravestones and some bronze inscriptions, however, and we find a wide variety of word orders in this small dataset: 14 a. Martialis Dannotali ieuru Ucuete sosin celicnon. Martialis Dannotalos. GEN dedicate. DAT this edifice?
Ratin briuatiom Frontu Tarbeisonios ieuru fort. ACC bridge-dwellers. GEN Fronto Tarbeisu.
Buscilla sosio legasit in Alixie Magalu. Buscilla this place. Moni gnatha; gabi budduton imon! Nata vimpi cvrmi da. Nor is there any evidence for V2 in other Continental Celtic languages. The limited Celtiberian sources point to SOV cf. The amount of data is extremely limited and there appears to be a range of possible verb orders cf. Russell Chapter 9. For the present article, we will therefore limit the discussion to the comparison and analysis of British languages only.
The Welsh language gradually lost V2 from the sixteenth century onwards, but this word-order pattern was still very prominent in the popular Welsh Bible translation. Research centered around the changing order of the verb and its arguments and the loss of V2. The preverbal particles that constitute the core of the present paper were largely overlooked, because they were considered to be meaningless lacking any semantic content cf. Lewis first argues there was a threefold syntactic opposition in the Hengerdd poetry dating from the period before Middle Welsh. Examples from Lewis include: 15 a.
Studies in Brythonic Word Order - James Fife, Erich Poppe - Bok () | Bokus
Dyhet dy-m goryw. Duw am difero. God 1S defend. Dewi differwys y eglwysseu. Dewi defend. He describes the origin of the preverbal particle a in two ways: i as part of a case ending combined with the infixed object pronoun, which was later reanalysed as proposed by Lewis e. MacCana , Russell and Schrijver have raised various concerns with this approach, from both a methodological as well as a linguistic point of view.
I will repeat the most prominent here for a detailed overview of arguments see, among others, MacCana , Russell and Schrijver Their main concerns lie with the type of evidence used. The crucial examples supporting their hypothesis are drawn from poetry in which word order is often determined by metrics and rhyme. Russell and in the third example see 15c the relative marker could be incorporated, leaving no clear subject-initial sentences as evidence for the proposed reanalysis.
Schrijver p. Schrijver and Schrijver MacCana presents an alternative origin of the Middle Welsh V2 orders in the form of the traditional Old Welsh nominativus pendens sentences with hanging topics like example 16 : 16 Ir pimphet eterin diguormechis lucas hegit hunnoid in pretium benedictionis the fifth bird REL.
These examples could be reinterpreted as the subject-initial sentences that became so prevalent in Middle Welsh. MacCana , T.
The subject-initial or V2 sentences are merely a literary phenomenon in Middle Welsh prose and were never part of the spoken language. Willis , however, has convincingly demonstrated that V2 in Middle Welsh must have been more than a literary phenomenon. In the following sections, I will build on this extensive previous literature by first of all presenting a thorough analysis of the Brythonic relative clauses that have proved to be crucial in any investigation of Welsh V2.
I furthermore highlight the significance of sentences with hanging topics, as Mac Cana , pointed out, but I do not arrive at the conclusion that V2 was just a literary phenomenon in Middle Welsh. Instead, along with Koch, Lewis and Evans but for different historical phonological and syntactic reasons , I will argue that V2 was a pan-Brythonic innovation. Schrijver and Schumacher However, Widmer convincingly shows that the the reverse explanation with a inserted analogically at a later stage, is more plausible.
Exemplou a quyffy.