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This programme is in partnership with More information The e-Audiology curriculum has three modules of e-learning designed to support assistant and associate audiologists, audiologists, GPs, GP practice staff, other healthcare professionals and volunteers across the NHS. Module 1 - Pathway Support Topic 1. Topic 1. General Skills e-Audiology General Skills covers a number of audiology related professional topics required for practitioners in healthcare.

Topic 2. Anatomy and Physiology e-Audiology Anatomy and Physiology covers essential knowledge of anatomy and physiology in audiology.

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Topic 3. Acoustics and Psycho-acoustics e-Audiology Acoustics and Psycho-acoustics covers key scientific concepts used in audiology. Topic 4. Topic 5. Topic 6. Topic 7. Auditory Intervention e-Audiology Auditory Intervention covers the underpinning knowledge required for managing hearing loss through the use of hearing aid technologies. Topic 8. Screening and Diagnostic Investigations e-Audiology Screening and Diagnostic Investigations covers a range of audiological assessment tools used with adults and children.

Module 3 - Audiology in Primary Care Topic 1. Audiology in Primary Care Audiology in Primary Care is for primary care professionals who are caring for people with common audiological problems balance problems, ear wax, tinnitus and hearing impairment with the aim to improve recognition of key symptoms, management and referral pathways.

ISBN 13: 9780769300641

Module 4 - Service Transformation Topic 1. Open Ear Technology e-Audiology Open Ear Technology aims to raise the awareness of open canal fittings and associated practices.

Sample sessions Approximately 50 hours of online training is currently available. Many advances in audiology today are related to the application of acoustic technology. A knowledge of the fundamentals of acoustics is essential if practitioners in audiology are going to understand the new applications and maximize their use. I hope that this book will become required reading for training courses in audiology and related professions, as it brings together the relevance of acoustics to audiology, which is not emphasized enough today.

The name has come to mean someone who applies the methods of audiological science to the diagnosis of hearing disorders and their treatment. An audiologist is, then, someone who works directly with patients or clients. The book is therefore for audiologists in hospitals, for those in hearing aid practice, and for clinicians who, though well acquainted with the medical aspects of hearing, may wish to learn more about the underlying physics.

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The text will also provide preparatory material for those undertaking courses in audiological science. Many who come to work in the medical or paramedical professions have backgrounds in the biological rather than the physical sciences and, understandably, sometimes feel uncomfortable with physics itself and with the mathematical formalism it involves. But like it or not, acoustics is thoroughly rooted in classical physics, and to understand the science of sound it is necessary to have some appreciation of the physics.

Fortunately, a little learning goes a long way and most of this text will be understandable to anyone who is familiar with those basic principles, particularly of mechanics, that were taught in school but that may, perhaps, have been forgotten. The same is true for much of the mathematics which is essential to an appreciation of any of the physical sciences. It is amazing what can be done with just elementary algebra and trigonometry, but the difficulty is that any facility with mathematics requires not just logical thinking but also memory, experience, and recent practice.

For many readers the memory may be dim, the experience forgotten, and the practice none too recent. For this reason mathematical treatments have been kept to a reasonable minimum. What is required, though—and here the reader must make due effort—is a full understanding of mathematical notation, that is, of the symbolism and rules of basic algebra. Mathematical notation provides, without ambiguity, the most concise expression of the relationships between physical quantities, and without it descriptions would become impossibly long-winded. With the foregoing in mind, the first chapter starts with a review of the basic physics.


Some essential mathematics is included in Appendix A. Readers who have purchased this book but who find the mathematical expressions unwelcome should give particular attention to the introductory remarks in Chapter 1 if they are not to be disappointed.

The sciences of anatomy and physiology describe the structure of the ear and attempt to explain how it is that we hear, psychology or psychoacoustics deals with the perception of sound, and medical science considers disorders of hearing and their alleviation. The audiologist as defined earlier may have to contend with all these aspects, or at least have some knowledge of them.

This book, however, will not stray far from the physics. There is some justification for this because there are many good texts that deal with the nonphysical parts of hearing science but few that treat physical acoustics at an appropriate level. It is the author's hope, therefore, that the reader will find in these chapters something helpful which is not readily obtainable elsewhere. It may seem curious that a book written for audiologists has only a short chapter on hearing aids. However, a recent Internet search of books about hearing aids provided a list of titles.

Many of these works were written by experts in the hearing aid industry, and an attempt to add to this literature would seem almost presumptuous.


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The reader will be better served by consulting current publications, particularly because the technology is changing almost daily as we enter the digital era. Questions and exercises have been included at the end of each chapter except the first. Their order corresponds approximately to that of the subjects as they appear in the main text. Students will find that working through the questions will impart a familiarity with the physics and generally make it easier to understand the ground that is being covered.

Many of the questions include numerical exercises. Although they may seem challenging at first sight, the exercises usually require little more than substitution of numerical information into the formulae given in the text. Attention to the exercises will enhance the student's arithmetical skill and help him or her to remember the meaning of the symbols and the technical terms and their relationship to each other.

Diligence is essential—very little can be learnt without practice. Unless they are fortunate enough to have worked abroad, authors of technical works tend to write for their own countrymen. The choice of subjects treated in this book has to some extent been determined by the syllabuses of courses run in Britain for audiology technicians, for industrial audiometricians, and for hearing aid dispensers whose practice is regulated by statute under the Hearing Aid Council Act.

The range is, however, wider than such courses require, and the treatment is for the most part more thorough. The physics is, of course, universal. The text should therefore be as relevant to audiological practice beyond these shores as it is to those on home ground. Haughton Acknowledgments The help and encouragement I received from colleagues while writing this book is gratefully acknowledged. I particularly wish to thank Michael Spicer, Head of Bioengineering, for his painstaking reading of the text and for the many helpful suggestions that he offered along the way.

Michael spent many hours in this task and but for his patient help there would be many more errors than those which inevitably remain. I also thank Richard Stubbs for the many lively discussions of technical issues and for his assistance in producing the computer-generated facsimile of Newton's rings in Figure 3. Most of the illustrations in this book are original, but some have been taken directly from other publications or adapted to suit the needs of this text. I wish to record my gratitude to those who have generously allowed me to use their work.

I also thank my colleague Tracy Kemp for creating the free-hand drawings in Figures 3. We should therefore start by reminding ourselves of some of the basic principles of physics, making special reference to those principles which are directly relevant to the science of acoustics. This first chapter provides a brief, highly selective review of elementary science and, in particular, elementary mechanics and properties of matter.

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Although these things are of course taught at school, they are often forgotten or only partially remembered after our school days are over. This chapter moves quite rapidly from one topic to the next and does not attempt to provide much in the way of explanation. It should be treated rather like a glossary except that the material is presented in a logical rather than an alphabetical order.

The intention is not so much to teach the physics as to explain terms that occur later in the text. Readers who have difficulty with elementary physics are advised that further reading should be considered. It will be apparent from the outset that mathematical notation is used more widely in this book than in the introductory material found in other basic audiology textbooks.

It is worth repeating the statement in the preface that mathematical notation provides a concise and unambiguous expression of the relationships between physical quantities and, providing it is understood, it can be a valuable complement to ordinary language.

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The great difficulty here is that many aspiring audiologists have little knowledge of mathematics they probably detested it in their school days and no ability to manipulate algebraic expressions. For them mathematics is an anathema. Their interest in audiology is not so much in the physics or even the acoustics as perhaps in the medical aspects and in the rewards of providing a personal service to another human being in need of help.

But most courses in audiology and most examinations essential to the acquisition of professional qualifications do require at least some understanding of acoustics, in which physics and mathematics are virtually indispensable. So what is to be done? There are two things that should encourage the mathematically diffident reader. The first is that although mathematical expressions will be used freely throughout the book, it will not be a disaster if they are not all understood.

Wherever possible the ordinary text stands on its own so that 1 2 Acoustics for Audiologists it is intelligible even if equations and other expressions are not meaningful. The second thing is that the mathematics is used only for its illustrative value and not as a means to derive one expression from another. Statements such as 'it can be shown There are inevitably some areas in which mathematical notation and mathematical ideas do have to be understood. The sine function, for example, is so important to acoustics that it is essential to know what this function is, to fully understand its principal characteristics, and to appreciate its relationship to other trigonometic functions.

Appendix A should help, and there are many textbooks that can supply this information. Physics is a difficult subject, and acoustics, which is part of physics, is not particularly easy. It is important to recognize where the difficulty lies because it is not only in the mathematical content. Physics is not all about the discovery of 'scientific facts'; it is about ideas, about the explanation of one observation in terms of another, and about a quest for ever greater generalization. Many of the ideas — the so-called laws—have taken centuries to develop and have exercised the minds of some of the most able thinkers of all time.

We should not be surprised if they are at times difficult to comprehend. But for the most part the physics in this book is straightforward and should be within the grasp of any intelligent person. There are really two difficulties. The first is that physics relies on very precise statements in which ordinary words are given narrowly defined, special meanings which they do not generally have in an everyday context.